Neurodegeneration

Neurodegeneration or neurodegenerative diseases are a group of disorders that are characterized by progressive loss of structure respective function of neurons, including their death.

Most known neurodegenerative diseases are Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Multiple sclerosis and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Yet, research in the field of neurodegeneration elucidates many more often overlapping diseases that have similar cellular and sub-cellular pathogenic mechanisms.




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Tab 01 / Application fields
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Alzheimers Diagnostics

Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease leading to dementia, can be characterized by 3 hallmarks, which are formation of Amyloid-beta plaques, TAU fibrils and loss of neurons and synapses, leading to a significant brain volume reduction. The first 2 hallmarks lead to the fact that measuring these proteins in CSF is a valuable tool to support the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

To assess Amyloid-beta pathology in AD more recent clinical research has shown that the determination of the Amyloid-beta ratio of Amyloid-beta (1-42)/Amyloid-beta (1-40) significantly improves the diagnostic value towards AD (Figure 1). Furthermore as fibril formation of TAU proteins is characterized by hyperphosphorylation, the determination of either phosphoTAU or the non-phosphorylated TAU fraction confirms the TAU pathology in AD.

Amyloid-beta ratio of Amyloid-beta (1-42) to Amyloid-beta (1-40)

The Amyloid-beta ratio of Amyloid-beta (1-42) to Amyloid-beta (1-40) significantly improves the accuracy of concordant samples in comparison to PiB from 74.9% to 89.4% (Lewczuk et al. J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;55(2):813-822.)

Schematic illustration of neurofilament subunits

Schematic illustration of neurofilament subunits

Research of axonal destruction

Neurofilaments are the backbone of the neuronal cytoskeleton. Neurofilament light is found to be elevated in neurodegenerative disorders that are associated with the destruction of white matter (substantia alba). Typically these are:

  • Parkinson's disease (PD)
  • Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

Further research in neurodegeneration

Yet, as the field of neurodegeneration still has much more to be discovered and understanding of disease mechanisms has still to be completely understood, we offer a large range of assays to enable research in this field.

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Tab 02 / Literature
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Product Flyers

ELISA

Selected ELISA reagents from our wide range of products for your Freedom EVOlyzer.

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ELISA for your ThunderBolt

Selected ELISA reagents from our wide range of products for your ThunderBolt.

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Neurodegeneration

Facilitate your workloads with automated ThunderBolt & ELISA solution. Suggested neurodegeneration panel worksheet for ThunderBolt®. Determin up to 4 dementia markers. List of available products.

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Tab 03 / Request a Quote!
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Picture
Product
Prod. No.
Price (US$)
Quantity
Order

Amyloid-beta (1-40) CSF ELISA

Incubation time 1 x 2h, 1 x 1h, 1 x 30 min. | Standard range 188 - 1880 pg/mL | Specimen / Volumes 5 µL CSF | Kit Size 12 x 8 | Substrate / isotype..

Incubation time 1 x 2h, 1 x 1h, 1 x 30 min. | Standard range 188 - 1880 pg/mL | Specimen / Volumes 5 µL CSF | Kit Size 12 x 8 | Substrate / isotype TMB 450 nm | Regulatory EU: CE

Alzheimer’s Disease accounts for roughly 60-70% of all dementia cases. Both prevalence and incidence increase with age. The development of the Disease is characterized by three stages, as defined by the US National Institute on Aging workgroups. A preclinical stage of Alzheimer’s Disease, the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage due to AD, and the dementia stage due to AD. Amyloidosis occurs as early as the preclinical stage. The first cognitive deficits can manifest themselves in MCI stage, while in the dementia stage patients are unable to do any work or daily chores. The concentration of amyloid-beta (1-42) is therefore recognized as a useful biomarker (in combination with other biomarkers such as Tau and Phospho-Tau) in diagnosing Alzheimer’s Disease. Moreover, a number of independent studies showed the ratio of amyloid-beta (1-42) to amyloid-beta (1-40) to be a superior diagnostic marker for Alzheimer’s Disease.

Protocol available for the open ELISA systems Freedom EVOlyzer® and ThunderBolt®.


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RE59651

Amyloid-beta (1-42) CSF ELISA

Incubation time 1 x 2h, 1 x 1h, 1 x 30 min. | Standard range 188 - 1880 pg/mL | Specimen / Volumes 5 µL CSF | Kit Size 12 x 8 | Substrate / isotype..

Incubation time 1 x 2h, 1 x 1h, 1 x 30 min. | Standard range 188 - 1880 pg/mL | Specimen / Volumes 5 µL CSF | Kit Size 12 x 8 | Substrate / isotype TMB 450 nm | Regulatory EU: CE

Over the last 15 years measuring amyloid-beta (1-42) peptide has gained acceptance as a tool to aid in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Yet, clinical sensitivity and specificity usually is less than 85%. This can be largely attributed to the Gaussian distribution of Amyloid-beta production in the population. It leads to false positives in the group of "low" Abeta producers and to false negatives in the group of "high" Abeta producers. Normalizing the Amyloid-beta (1-42) values to the most abundant and stably produced Abeta (1-40) isoform overcomes this limitation and significantly improves the diagnostic value to well above 90%. The development of the Disease is characterized by three stages, as defined by the US National Institute on Aging workgroups. A preclinical stage of Alzheimer’s Disease, the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage due to AD, and the dementia stage due to AD.

Protocol available for the open ELISA systems Freedom EVOlyzer® and ThunderBolt®.


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RE59661

hTau total ELISA

Incubation time 1 x 2h, 1 x 90min, 1 x 30min | Standard range 25 - 1000 pg/mL | Specimen / Volumes 25µL CSF | Kit Size 12 x 8 | Substrate / isotype..

Incubation time 1 x 2h, 1 x 90min, 1 x 30min | Standard range 25 - 1000 pg/mL | Specimen / Volumes 25µL CSF | Kit Size 12 x 8 | Substrate / isotype TMB 450 nm | Regulatory EU: CE

The concentration of Tau in the CSF is a marker of neuronal cell death. In Alzheimer's disease, however, it increases only at a later stage of the disease when the patient already displays significant cognitive impairment. Therefore, the determination of total tau in CSF is important for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease in addition to the determination of amyloid β-peptides. However, increased tau levels are found in other neurodegenerative diseases as well. These disorders are generally referred to as tauopathies and include, inter alia, frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), Pick's disease and corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Tau levels are markedly elevated in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The hTAU total ELISA from Analytik Jena, manufactured by AJ Roboscreen and distributed by IBL International, was optimized so that it can be processed in parallel with the IBL Amyloid-β CSF ELISA.

Protocol available for the open ELISA systems Freedom EVOlyzer® and ThunderBolt®.

*Distributed by IBL International

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RE59631

NF-light® (Neurofilament-light) ELISA

Incubation time 1 x 1h, 1 x 45min, 1 x 30min, 1 x 15min | Standard range 100 - 10000 ng/L | Specimen / Volumes 50 µL CSF | Kit Size 12 x 8 |..

Incubation time 1 x 1h, 1 x 45min, 1 x 30min, 1 x 15min | Standard range 100 - 10000 ng/L | Specimen / Volumes 50 µL CSF | Kit Size 12 x 8 | Substrate / isotype TMB 450 nm | Regulatory EU: CE

The NF-Light® (Neurofilament light) ELISA allows fast quantification of the neurofilament light chain. Neurofilament light is found to be elevated in neurodegenerative disorders that are associated with the destruction of white matter, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Multiple sclerosis (MS) and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
The assay was developed by UmanDiagnostics, a company focusing on the development of tools for the determination of neurological and traumatic injuries.

Neurofilaments are the backbone of the neuronal cytoskeleton. Inside the axons, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the neurofilaments regulate the expansion and contraction of the microtubules. The neurofilament light chain is the most common isoform compared to medium and heavy chain. It is rapidly released after axonal destruction and remains highly stable (at least for 8 days, even at room temperature).

The NF-Light® (Neurofilament light) ELISA is exclusively distributed by IBL International. Protocol available for the open ELISA system ThunderBolt®.


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UD51001

phosphoTAU ELISA

Incubation time 1 x 18 h (1 x 6 h), 1 x 30 min. | Standard range 5 - 300 pg/mL | Specimen / Volumes 50 µL CSF | Kit Size 12 x 8 | Substrate / isotype..

Incubation time 1 x 18 h (1 x 6 h), 1 x 30 min. | Standard range 5 - 300 pg/mL | Specimen / Volumes 50 µL CSF | Kit Size 12 x 8 | Substrate / isotype TMB 450 nm | Regulatory EU: CE

The phosphoTAU ELISA is an enzyme immunoassay intended for the quantitative determination of phosphorylated tau in human CSF for supporting diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The development of Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by three stages, as defined by the US National Institute on Aging workgroups:

- a preclinical stage of Alzheimer’s Disease,
- the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage due to AD and
- dementia stage due to AD.


Phosphorylated tau in CSF shows at least comparable diagnostic specificity and sensitivity to other diagnostic available tests for Alzheimer’s disease.

Protocol available for the open ELISA systems Freedom EVOlyzer® and ThunderBolt®.
*Distributed by IBL International


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30121609

pTAUrel ELISA

Incubation time 1 x 3 h, 1 x 30 min | Standard range 12 - 1200 pg/mL | Specimen / Volumes 50 µL CSF | Kit Size 12 x 8 | Substrate / isotype TMB 450..

Incubation time 1 x 3 h, 1 x 30 min | Standard range 12 - 1200 pg/mL | Specimen / Volumes 50 µL CSF | Kit Size 12 x 8 | Substrate / isotype TMB 450 nm | Regulatory EU: CE

The pTAUrel ELISA measures the TAU fraction non-physphorylated at T175/T181 in human CSF as an aid in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. When comparing the measurement of this non-phosphorylated TAU fraction with other available diagnostic tests a similar, if not even better, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity can be reached in the confirmation of Alzheimer's disease patients.

Protocol available for the open ELISA system Freedom EVOlyzer®. *Distributed by IBL International


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RE59641

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Find here selected products. Protocols for application support are available. The combined use of assays, process script and open system instrument (e.g. EVOlyzer®, ThunderBolt®) has to be validated individually on site by each laboratory. Interchangeability is only valid within same lot numbers for the single components.